Authors, editors, and creators are listed at the beginning of the citation with the last name first, followed by the first initial and the middle initial. If no middle initial is provided, then leave it out. The first and middle initial should each have a period, and there should be a space between them.
If the name of an author, editor, or creator is listed in the middle of the citation (such as with the "Book with An Editor and an Author" example), then the first and middle initial are first, followed by the last name.
Multiple authors are listed with commas in between them, even if there are only two. The last two authors have an ampersand (&) between them.
There is more information about citing authors on the Purdue OWL APA Guide.
Titles of books are italicized and in sentence case. Titles of articles are not italicized and in sentence case. Titles of journals (or periodicals) are italicized and in title case.
Subtitles occur after colons or dashes; use whichever one the source uses. The first word of the subtitle is capitalized. Some sources do not have subtitles.
Locations should always be listed with the state abbreviation if in the United States. Sometimes multiple locations are listed on a book. If so, use the first location listed or the main location.
Each major portion of the citation should end with a period. The end of the citation should also have a period, unless the citation ends with a URL or a DOI. Use the examples below to guide you in your use of punctuation in your citations.
For books, citation information is contained in three main places: the cover, the title page, and the back of the title page.
Click on the type of source below to see the correct citation example. Plug in the information for your book using the formatting in these examples. Pay special attention to capitalization, punctuation, and italicization.
After the title of the journal, use a comma followed by the volume number and the issue number. The volume number is italicized and the issue number with parentheses is not. There is no space between them.
For newspaper articles or any type of publication that is published very frequently, use the month and the day in addition to the year. Spell out the whole month (don't use an abbreviation).
For articles, the citation information is usually found on the details page for the article in the database where you found the article. Some articles also list the citation information on the article itself.
For scholarly articles, it is preferred that you use a DOI whenever possible. Almost all scholarly articles have a DOI. If you cannot find it, you can use this website to look up the DOI for your article.
For popular articles (newspapers, magazines, trade journals), use the URL (web address). If you are using an EBSCOhost database, you will have to get a permanent link by using the "permalink" tool. This tool looks like a little chainlink icon on the right side of the details page for the article.
See the Frequently Asked Questions tab for situations in which you cannot find all of the information you need to cite.
Click on the type of source below to see the correct citation example. Plug in the information for your journal article using the formatting in these examples. Pay special attention to capitalization, punctuation, and italicization.
Web resources are really tricky sometimes, but you can usually use the clues provided to determine whether the website is an online magazine, online newspaper, a blog, or just a general website.
For more information about citing sources on the web, visit the Purdue OWL APA Guide.
For more information about citing websites, visit the APA 6 Style Blog.
Click on the type of source below to see the correct citation example. Plug in the information for your web resource using the formatting in these examples. Pay special attention to capitalization, punctuation, and italicization.